ROBOROVSKI HAMSTER

ROBOROVSKI HAMSTER

Animalia

The kingdom Animalia’s species list
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that are members of the Animalia biological kingdom. They are also known as Metazoa. Animals, with very few exceptions, are able to move, breathe oxygen, ingest organic material, reproduce sexually, and go through an ontogenetic stage in which their bodies are formed during embryonic development from a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula. Although it has been predicted that there are more than 7 million animal species overall, over 1.5 million live animal species have been described, of which over 1 million are insects. Animals may range in size from 8.5 micrometres (0.00033 in) to 33.6 m (110 ft). They create massive food webs through their complicated interactions with one another and their environment. Zoology is the study of animals from a scientific perspective.
many people The group of animal species known as Bilateria includes creatures with a body design that is bilaterally symmetric. The protostomes, which comprise invertebrates like nematodes, arthropods, and molluscs, and the deuterostomes, which contain echinoderms and chordates, which also include vertebrates, are included in the group called Bilateria. The late Precambrian Ediacaran biota had life forms that have been viewed as the ancestors of modern mammals. During the Cambrian boom, which started around 542 million years ago, many contemporary animal phyla became distinctly established in the fossil record as marine animals. A single common ancestor that lived 650 million years ago may have given rise to the 6,331 gene groupings that are shared by all living things today.
Aristotle distinguished between animals with and without blood historically. The was invented by Carl Linnaeus His Systema Naturae introduced the first hierarchical biological taxonomy for animals in 1758, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck developed it into 14 phyla by 1809. Ernst Haeckel split the animal world into two groups in 1874: the multicellular Metazoa, which has come to be known as the Animalia, and the Protozoa, which included single-celled creatures no longer regarded as animals. Modern animal categorization relies on cutting-edge methodologies like molecular phylogenetics, which are good at showing the evolutionary links between species.
Numerous animal species are used by humans for various purposes, such as pets, working animals (including as transport), food (including meat, milk, and eggs), materials (such as leather and wool), and food. Many terrestrial and aquatic species have been hunted for sport, along with dogs and raptor birds Nonhuman creatures have been depicted in art since the beginning of time and are important in myth and religion.

Chordata

Vertebrata

The list of Vertebrata subphylum species
All species of creatures belonging to the phylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones), which also includes all mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, are considered vertebrates. The phylum Chordata, which now has 69,963 species, is dominated by vertebrates.
Hagfish and lampreys are among the fish that lack jaws.
cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays, and ratfish), among other jawed vertebrates
Bony fish, such as ray-fins (which make up the bulk of extant bony fish),
lobe-fins, which are seen in tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) such as lungfish and coelacanths.
Current vertebrates range in size from the tiny 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Paedophryne amauensis frog to the 33 m (108 ft) blue whale. Less than 5% of all known animal species are vertebrates; the majority are the absence of vertebral columns in invertebrates.
The hagfish, one of the conventional vertebrates, lacks appropriate vertebrae as a result of their loss throughout evolution, but its closest surviving cousins, the lampreys, do. However, hagfish do have a skull. For this reason, while discussing morphology, the vertebrate subphylum is occasionally referred to as “Craniata”.According to molecular studies carried out since 1992, hagifish and vertebrates in a monophyletic sense are regarded to be most closely related to lampreys. Others consider them to be a sister taxon of vertebrates that make up the craniata.

Mammalia

Species of the order Mammalia, listed
Mammalia, which means “breast” in Latin, refers to a group of vertebrates that make up the class Mammalia and are distinguished by having skin or hair, a neocortex (a portion of the brain), mammary glands, which produce milk in females for nourishing (nursing) their young, and the three middle ear bones. These characteristics set them apart from the reptiles (including birds) from whom they separated 300 million years ago, during the Carboniferous. There are now 6,400 known species of mammals. Rodents, bats, and Eulypotyphila (hedgehogs, moles, shrews, and other species) are the three biggest orders. The following three are Carnivora (cats, dogs, seals, and others), Artiodactyla (cetaceans and even-toed ungulates), and Primates (including humans, monkeys, apes, and others).
By way of Mammals are the sole surviving members of the Synapsida (synapsids), according to cladistics, which represents evolutionary history. This clade is a part of the wider Amniota group, which also includes the Sauropsida (birds and reptiles). The sphenacodonts, which included the well-known Dimetrodon, were the first synapsids. Synapsids are categorised into three distinct subgroups of non-mammalian synapsids, which are now recognised as stem mammals or protomammals and were formerly wrongly referred to as mammal-like reptiles or pelycosaurs. Mammals developed from the cynodonts, a contemporary group of therapsids, during the Early Jurassic period before giving birth to therapsids at the start of Period. Following the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs, the orders of modern mammals emerged in the Paleogene and Neogene eras of the Cenozoic era. Since then, they have been able to from 66 million years ago to the present, the main group of terrestrial animals.
The majority of animals have quadrupedal bodies, which means they move around on land by using all four of their limbs. However, the extremities of certain species have evolved for living in the water, the air, trees, underground, or on two legs. Mammals can be as little as 30-40 mm (1.2-1.6 in) to as massive as the blue whale, which may be the biggest mammal to have ever existed at 30 m (98 ft). The maximum age for a bowhead wheel is 211 years, ranging from two years for a bow. With the exception of five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals, all contemporary mammals give birth to live offspring. Placentals, the group of animals with the most species, contain a placenta, which allows the foetus throughout pregnancy to feed.
Many mammals have huge brains, self-awareness, and the ability to utilise tools, and most are intelligent. Numerous methods, including as ultrasonography, scent marking, warning signals, songs, and echolocation, are used by mammals to vocalise and communicate. Mammals can form fusion communities, harems, and hierarchies; but, they can also be loners and possessive. While most animals have several partners, some are monogamous or polygynous.
The Neolithic Revolution saw the domestication of several species of animals by humans, and as a result, agriculture displaced hunting and gathering as the main method of human subsistence. Due to increased collaboration between increasingly large groups and the ultimate development of the sedentary lifestyle, this resulted in a significant reorganisation of human civilizations from nomadic to sedentary original civilizations. Domesticated animals have provided and still do offer food (meat and dairy products), fur, leather and energy for transportation and agriculture. Additionally, mammals are utilised as model creatures in research and are hunted and raced for entertainment. Since the Palaeolithic age, mammals have been portrayed in art. They also feature in literature, entertainment, myth, and religion. Human poaching and habitat degradation, particularly deforestation, are the major causes of the reduction in population and extinction of many animals.

Rodentia

Species of the rodent family listed
Mammals in the order Rodentia known as rats and mice have a pair of continually developing incisors in both their upper and lower jaws, giving them the name rats and mice. About 40% of all mammals are rodents. Except for New Zealand, Antarctica, and a few oceanic islands, they are native to all significant land masses; but, due to human activities, they were later introduced to the majority of these land masses.
The ecology and way of life of rodents are incredibly diversified, and they may be found in practically any terrestrial ecosystem, even ones that are man-made. Arboreal, fossorial (browing), saltatrel/rachiocatal (jumping on their hind legs), or semi-aquatic species are also possible. However, all rodents share a number of physical traits, such as having just one set of ever-growing incisors on each side of the mouth. Mice, rats, squirrels, prairie dogs, porcupines, beavers, guinea pigs, and hamsters are examples of well-known rodents. Prior to being separated into a different order, Lagomorpha, rabbits, hares, and pikas—which have continually developing incisors but two pairs of upper incisors instead of one—were also included with them. Rodentia and Lagomorpha, on the other hand, are sister taxa that belong to the clade Glires and have a common ancestor.
The majority of rodents are tiny, robust creatures with short limbs and lengthy tails. Their pointed tusks are used for eating, digging, and self-defense. Though some have varied diets, the majority consume seeds or other plant material. Since they are sociable creatures, many of their species coexist in groups and have sophisticated means of communication. Rodents can mate in a variety of ways, from monogamous to polygamous. Many others are aberrant (relatively well developed) at birth, while some have heterogeneous, undeveloped infants.
On the supercontinent Laurasia, rodent fossils date back to the Paleocene. As they migrated across continents and occasionally even across seas, rodents were incredibly varied throughout the Eocene. Prior to the appearance of Homo sapiens, rodents were the only terrestrial animals to reach and colonise Australia. Rodents travelled from Africa to South America, Madagascar, and Australia.
Rats have been utilised as pets, food, clothing, and research lab animals. Some species, including the brown rat, black rat, and house rat, are dangerous pests that contaminate food kept by humans, spread disease, and devour and destroy it. The extinction of various species has been attributed to accidentally introduced rodent species, which are frequently seen as invasive.such as island birds that were once secluded from terrestrial predators, like the dodo.
With the exception of Antarctica, rodents are among the most common types of mammals. They are the only land animals to have settled in Australia and New Guinea without the help of humans. Animals, such as the Polynesian rat, have spread to several isolated marine islands thanks to humans. Nearly every terrestrial ecosystem, even the chilly tundra (where they may survive beneath snow) and the scorching desert, has been adapted by rodents.
Other species, including gophers, toco-tocos, and mole rats, live nearly totally underground and have elaborate tunnel networks. Some species, like tree squirrels and New World porcupines, are aquatic. Others have a ground-floor residence but might to bury oneself in. The semi-aquatic beavers and muskrats are well known, but the New Guinea eared water rat is most likely the rodent that adapts to aquatic life. In artificial ecosystems like urban and agricultural regions, rodents have also thrived.
Despite the fact that certain species are frequent human pests, rats perform crucial ecological roles. In their specific environments, certain rodents are regarded as keystone species and ecosystem engineers. In the North American Great Plains, prairie dogs’ burrowing activities have a significant impact on soil aeration, nutrient redistribution, soil organic content, and water absorption. Due to the higher nutritional value of grazing close to prairie dog colonies, certain big herbivores like bison and pronghorn prefer to do so, and thus sustain these grassland environments of the fodder quality.
The eradication of prairie dogs may also hasten the decline of local and regional biodiversity, increase seed loss, and promote the growth of exotic species. Decaying rats can consume the fungus’ fruiting bodies and release its spores through their faeces. This allows the fungus to spread and form symbiotic partnerships with plant roots, which it typically needs to survive. As a result, these rodents can contribute to the preservation of healthy forests.
Beavers have a crucial hydrological function in many temperate locations. Beavers change the flow of streams and rivers as they construct their dams and lodges, resulting in the creation of vast wetland ecosystems. According to one research, beaver engineering increased the quantity of herbaceous plants in riparian regions by 33%. Another According to a research, beavers increase the numbers of wild salmon. Due of their extensive distribution, certain rodents are considered pests.

Cricetidae

PHODOPUS

List of species in the genus Phodops Phodopus is a genus of tiny hamsters native to Central Asia that exhibit peculiar responses to severe temperatures. It belongs to the hamster subfamily Cricetinae, a part of the wider family Cricetidae. They are the only species of hamsters that have been found to live in colonies, and they occasionally rely heavily on male assistance to raise their young. They are nocturnal and active all year round. They don’t hibernate, though. Due to its diminutive size (about 7 to 10 cm or 2.8 to 3.9 inches) in comparison to other hamster species, the Phodopus species, along with members Cricetulus, Allocricetulus, and Tscherskia, are referred to as dwarf hamsters.
Members of the Fodopus have spherical bodies, short tails, and cheek pouches like other hamsters Food can be kept there. They all endure hot and dry circumstances to survive. They inhabit the steppes, semi-deserts, and woods of Mongolia, Siberia, China, and Kazakhstan. across sediments from the Pleistocene and Pliocene eras, Phodopus fossils have been discovered across Europe and Asia.
Species of phodopus are frequently offered as little pets. In particular, seasonal endocrine fluctuations are studied using them as laboratory organisms. Some species are regarded as pests in agriculture.
Unlike its larger relative, the golden hamster, which is regarded as a pet and is also maintained, all three species are widespread and potentially numerous and are rated as Least Concern (LC) by the IUCN Red List. However, nothing is known about their ecology and population dynamics. Historical evidence indicates that In regions where they no longer exist, they were formerly widespread. They are thus included in the Code of Accreditation of the Index of Rare and Endangered Animal and Plant Species (2006) published by the Government of Kazakhstan.
The hilly woods, steppes, and semi-deserts of Mongolia, together with the surrounding regions of China, northeastern Kazakhstan, and the southern portion of the western Siberian lowlands of Tuva and Doria, are home to many species of fodops. Although there are few isolated endemic populations, all three species are widespread. The IUCN Red List rates all three species as Least Concern (LC), indicating that they are all likely quite common. At least in Mongolia, they are all found in locations that are quite safe, and none of them are endangered. Since their population dynamics and condition are unknown, some species are seen as being of concern (the government of Kazakhstan, for instance, mandates monitoring of P. ruborovskyi). Some species have significantly smaller home ranges and may have gone extinct due to habitat degradation or as a result of being agricultural pests.

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