BLACK SWAN

Animalia

The kingdom Animalia’s species list
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that are members of the Animalia biological kingdom. They go by the name Metazoa as well. Animals undergo an ontogenetic stage in which their bodies are produced during embryonic development from a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula. Animals may move, breathe oxygen, absorb organic material, reproduce sexually, and proceed through this stage, with very few exceptions. Despite estimates that there are more than 7 million animal species worldwide, over 1.5 million living animal species, including more than 1 million insects, have been identified. Animals may range in size from 8.5 micrometres (0.00033 in) to 33.6 m (110 ft). Through their intricate connections with one another and their surroundings, they build enormous food webs. The science of zoology is the examination of animals from a scientific angle.
Bilateria, a group with individuals who have a bilaterally symmetric body plan, contains the majority of the extant animal species. The protostomes, which comprise invertebrates like nematodes, arthropods, and molluscs, and the deuterostomes, which contain echinoderms and chordates, which also include vertebrates, are included in the group called Bilateria. The late Precambrian Ediacaran biota had life forms that have been viewed as the ancestors of modern mammals. During the Cambrian boom, which started around 542 million years ago, many contemporary animal phyla became distinctly established in the fossil record as marine animals. A single common ancestor that lived 650 million years ago may have given rise to the 6,331 gene groupings that are shared by all living things today.
In the past, Aristotle made a distinction between creatures with and without blood. With his Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus established the first hierarchical biological taxonomy for animals in 1758. By 1809, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck had enlarged it into 14 phyla. Ernst Haeckel split the animal world into two groups in 1874: the multicellular Metazoa, which has come to be known as the Animalia, and the Protozoa, which included single-celled creatures no longer regarded as animals. Modern animal categorization relies on cutting-edge methodologies like molecular phylogenetics, which are good at showing the evolutionary links between species.
Numerous animal species are used by humans for various purposes, such as pets, working animals (including as transport), food (including meat, milk, and eggs), materials (such as leather and wool), and food. Dogs and birds of prey have both been utilised in hunting, along with several other land and aquatic creatures.

Chordata

Aves

The list of Aves class species
Birds belong to the Aves, a group of warm-blooded creatures, and are distinguishable from other animals by their feathers, toothless beaks, hard-shelled eggs, high metabolic rates, four chambers hearts, and sturdy yet light bones. The biggest bird is the 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in) ostrich, while the smallest is the 5.5 cm (2.2 in) bee hummingbird. The majority of the ten thousand or more species that are still alive are passerine, or “perching,” birds. Despite the fact that the development of wings differs between species, only the extinct moa and elephant bird species are known to be wingless. Birds’ capacity to fly was first enabled by forelimbs that developed into wings, yet further development has resulted in the loss of Some bird species, such as ratites, penguins, and numerous unique island species, have the ability to fly. Birds’ respiratory and digestive systems are also well designed for flying. Some aquatic bird species, notably seabirds and some waterbirds, have gone through further evolution to become swimmers.
Theropods with feathers, which are birds, are the only known extant dinosaurs. In the contemporary cladistic definition of the word, birds are also considered reptiles, and the crocodilians are their closest living cousins. Birds are descended from the early avialans, including Archaeopteryx, who first emerged in China approximately 160 million years ago (mya). DNA evidence shows that modern birds (Neornithes) developed during the Middle to Late Cretaceous and underwent a rapid period of diversification around the time of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction catastrophe, which killed off 66 million years ago.
Culture is the transmission of information across generations in many social organisms. Birds are social creatures that engage in cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators, as well as visual cues, cries, and songs. Most bird species are socially (but not always sexually) monogamous, often for one mating season at a time, occasionally for years, and very rarely for life. Other animals have polyandrous (one female with numerous males) or polygynous (one male with many females) breeding systems. Birds deposit eggs that are fertilised by sexual reproduction to generate young. They are typically hatched by the parents after being deposited in a nest. The majority of birds have a long care provided by the parents after hatching.
Numerous bird species play crucial roles in the economy as supplies of raw materials for production as well as sustenance for humans. Wild and farmed birds both contribute significantly to global egg, meat, and feather production.
Many people keep songbirds, parrots, and other animals as pets. Bird faeces, or guano, is collected and used as fertiliser. Birds appear frequently in human culture. Since the 17th century, between 120 to 130 species have gone extinct as a result of human activities, and hundreds more before that. Approximately 1,200 bird species are endangered by human activities, however protection measures are being taken. Recreational birdwatching makes up a substantial section of the ecotourism industry.
On all seven continents and in the majority of terrestrial ecosystems, birds may be seen breeding, reaching their southernmost point in Antarctica’s breeding colonies for the snow petrel can be found up to 440 kilometres (270 miles) inland. The variety of birds is greatest in tropical areas. The higher rates of speciation in the tropics were once assumed to be the cause of this high variety, but more recent research has showed that these higher rates were actually compensated by higher extinction rates in the high latitudes. Numerous bird families have evolved to survive both on land and in the world’s oceans. Some seabird species come ashore solely to breed, while some penguins have been observed diving as deep as 300 metres (980 feet). Many species move annually across enormous distances and across oceans.
Numerous bird species have created breeding colonies where they have previously existed. brought about by humanity. Some of these imports were planned; the ring-necked pheasant, for instance, was distributed as a game bird around the world. Others have happened by mistake, such when wild monk parakeets spread over various towns in North America after escaping from captivity. As a result of agricultural practises that provided adequate new habitat, certain species, such as the cattle egret, yellow-headed caracara, and galah, have naturally expanded well beyond their native habitats.

Anseriformes

The order of Anseriformes species list
Anhimidae (three species of screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, contain more than 170 species of waterfowl, including ducks, geese, and swans. Together, these three families make up the order of birds known as Anseriformes, also known as waterfowl. The majority of the order’s contemporary species have excellent aquatic surfacing adaptations. Males have penises, a feature that has been lost in the Neoaves, with the exception of screamers. The majority of animals have web-footed feet because they are aquatic.

Anatidae

Cygnus

The Cygnus genus species list
Swans are bird species that belong to the family Anatidae and genus Cygnus. The swans’ nearest relatives are ducks and geese. The tribe Cygnini is made up of swans and closely related geese that belong to the subfamily Anserinae. On sometimes, they are thought of as belonging to a distinct subfamily named Cygninae. Swans come in six current species and several extinct ones. There is also a species known as the coscoroba swan that is no longer thought of as a real swan. Swans typically stay together for life, however “divorce” can occasionally happen, especially after a failed nest. If a partner passes away, the surviving swan will remarry. Each clutch contains anything from three to eight eggs.Swans are mostly found in temperate regions; they are quite uncommon in tropical regions. In flight, swans are referred to as a bevy or wedge. One species is found in Australia, four (or five) species are found in the Northern Hemisphere, one extinct species was discovered in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and one species is located in southern South America. Tropical Asia, Central America, northern South America, and all of Africa are devoid of them. The mute swan, a member of one species, has been brought to New Zealand, Australia, and North America. Several species migrate, either whole or in part. The mute swan is mostly migratory in Eastern Europe and Asia, but it is a resident in some parts of Western Europe.

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