The kingdom Animalia’s species list
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that are members of the Animalia biological kingdom. They are also known as Metazoa. Animals, with very few exceptions, are able to move, breathe oxygen, ingest organic material, reproduce sexually, and go through an ontogenetic stage in which their bodies are formed during embryonic development from a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula. Although it has been predicted that there are more than 7 million animal species overall, over 1.5 million live animal species have been described, of which over 1 million are insects. Animals may range in size from 8.5 micrometres (0.00033 in) to 33.6 m (110 ft). Through their intricate connections with one another and their surroundings, they build enormous food webs.
many people The group of animal species known as Bilateria includes creatures with a body design that is bilaterally symmetric. The protostomes, which comprise invertebrates like nematodes, arthropods, and molluscs, and the deuterostomes, which contain echinoderms and chordates, which also include vertebrates, are included in the group called Bilateria. The late Precambrian Ediacaran biota had life forms that have been viewed as the ancestors of modern mammals. During the Cambrian boom, which started around 542 million years ago, many contemporary animal phyla became distinctly established in the fossil record as marine animals. A single common ancestor that lived 650 million years ago may have given rise to the 6,331 gene groupings that are shared by all living things today
Aristotle distinguished between animals with and without blood historically. The was invented by Carl Linnaeus His Systema Naturae introduced the first hierarchical biological taxonomy for animals in 1758, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck developed it into 14 phyla by 1809. Ernst Haeckel split the animal world into two groups in 1874: the multicellular Metazoa, which has come to be known as the Animalia, and the Protozoa, which included single-celled creatures no longer regarded as animals. Modern animal categorization relies on cutting-edge methodologies like molecular phylogenetics, which are good at showing the evolutionary links between species.
Numerous animal species are used by humans for various purposes, such as pets, working animals (including as transport), food (including meat, milk, and eggs), materials (such as leather and wool), and food. Many terrestrial and aquatic species have been hunted for sport, along with dogs and raptor birds.



The list of Vertebrata subphylum species
All species of creatures belonging to the phylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones), which also includes all mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, are considered vertebrates.The phylum Chordata, which now has 69,963 species, is dominated by vertebrates.
Hagfish and lampreys are among the fish that lack jaws.
cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays, and ratfish), among other jawed vertebrates
Bony fish, such as ray-fins (which make up the bulk of extant bony fish),
lobe-fins, which are seen in tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) such as lungfish and coelacanths.
Current vertebrates range in size from the tiny 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Paedophryne amauensis frog to the 33 m (108 ft) blue whale. Less than 5% of all known animal species are vertebrates; the majority are the absence of vertebral columns in invertebrates.
The hagfish, one of the conventional vertebrates, lacks appropriate vertebrae as a result of their loss throughout evolution, but its closest surviving cousins, the lampreys, do. However, hagfish do have a skull. For this reason, while discussing morphology, the vertebrate subphylum is occasionally referred to as “Craniata”.According to molecular studies carried out since 1992, hagifish and vertebrates in a monophyletic sense are regarded to be most closely related to lampreys. Others consider them to be a sister taxon of vertebrates that make up the craniata.


The Mammalia class’s species list
Mammals have three middle ear bones, a neocortex (a component of the brain), fur, and mammary glands, which in females generate milk for nurturing (nursing) their young (from Latin mamma, “breast”). Mammals also have a neocortex. These traits set them apart from other reptiles, such as birds, from which they split off in the Carboniferous period, more than 300 million years ago. There are now 6,400 known species of mammals. The rodents, bats, and Eulipotyphla (which includes hedgehogs, moles, and shrews) are the three biggest orders. The Artiodactyla, which includes even-toed ungulates and other cetaceans, the Carnivora, which includes dogs, cats, seals, and other species, and the Primates, which includes humans, apes, and other primates, are the following three taxa.
By way of Mammals are the sole surviving members of the Synapsida (synapsids), which combined with Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) makes up the wider Amniota clade and represents evolutionary history. Sphenacodonts, a group that included the well-known Dimetrodon, were the first synapsids. Before giving rise to therapsids at the beginning of the Middle Permian, the synapsids divided into a number of distinct groups of non-mammalian synapsids, which are now known as stem mammals or protomammals after being historically and incorrectly referred to as mammal-like reptiles or by the term pelycosaurs. In the Early Jurassic, therapsids known as cynodonts—a highly developed group—were the ancestors of mammals. Following the demise of non-avian dinosaurs during the Cenozoic era, the current mammalian orders emerged and have since dominated the terrestrial animal kingdom. the time period starting 66 million years ago and ending now.
The majority of mammals have quadrupedal bodies and move around on land with their four extremities. However, others have evolved with their extremities for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground, or on two legs. The bumblebee bat, which is 30-40 mm (1.2-1.6 in) in length, and the blue whale, which may be the biggest animal to have ever lived, are two examples of mammals that vary in size. For shrews, the maximum life expectancy is two years, but for bowhead whales, it is 211 years. Except for the five egg-laying mammal species known as monotremes, all contemporary mammals give birth to live infants. A placenta, which allows for feeding, is a feature of the cohort of mammals known as placentals, which is the most species-rich group. of the foetus throughout pregnancy.
The majority of mammals are intelligent, and some have big brains, self-awareness, and tool usage. Mammals have a variety of vocalisation and communication techniques, such as singing, echolocation, scent-marking, ultrasonic generation, and warning signals. Mammals can form harems, hierarchies, and fission-fusion groups, yet they can also be solitary and territorial. Although most animals are polyandrous or monogamous, there are a few exceptions.
The domestication of several species of animals by humans contributed significantly to the Neolithic Revolution, which saw farming replace foraging and hunting as the main means of human sustenance. Due to this, human societies underwent a significant transformation from nomadic to sedentary, increasing cooperation among increasingly large groups and ultimately leading to the creation of the first civilizations. Domesticated animals have provided and continue to provide energy for farming, food production, transportation, clothing, leather, and the production of fur.
Additionally, mammals are utilised as model creatures in research and are hunted and raced for entertainment. Since the Palaeolithic age, mammals have been portrayed in art. They also feature in literature, movies, mythology, and religion. Human-caused poaching and habitat degradation, especially deforestation, are the main causes of the decline in population and extinction of many animals.




The family Felidae species list
Cats, or the Felidae family of mammals, which makes up a clade, are members of the order Carnivora. A member of this family is also known as a felid. The term “cat” not only refers to felids in general but also specifically to the domestic cat (Felis catus). The Felidae family of terrestrial carnivores has the fur patterns with the widest variety. Cats have slender, muscular bodies, powerful, flexible forelimbs, and retractable claws. Their teeth and facial muscles allow them to bite strongly. All of them must eat meat to survive, and the majority of them stalk or ambush their victim alone. Wild cats may be found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Several wild cat species have evolved to live in forests, others in desert regions, others a few to hilly and wetland areas as well. Depending on the sort of prey they like, they might be nocturnal, crepuscular, or diurnal in their activity patterns.
The Pantherinae, the Felinae, and the Acinonychinae are Reginald Innes Pocock’s divisions of the extant Felidae, which are distinguished from one another by the ossification of the hyoid apparatus and the cutaneous sheaths that serve as their claw protectors. This idea has been updated in light of advancements in molecular biology and methods for morphological data processing. The Pantherinae and Felinae are the two subfamilies that make up the extant Felidae today, with the Acinonychinae falling under the latter. Felinae contains the remaining 34 species in eleven genera, whereas Pantherinae has five Panthera and two Neofelis species.
About 25 million years ago, during the Oligocene, cats first appeared With the emergence of Proailurus and Pseudaelurus millions of years ago. Two primary lineages of felids, including the current subfamilies of cats and a group of extinct cats from the subfamily Machairodontinae, which includes saber-toothed cats like the Smilodon, descended from the latter species complex. The Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae are closely related “false sabre-toothed cats” but are not actual cats. They make up the Feliformia together with the Felidae, Viverridae, hyaenas, and mongooses.


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